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    Quantum Cryptography

    Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks / cryptoquantique.com
    Today, quality control and the desire for absolute safety have contributed to the introduction of numerous sensors in our lives. Optical technologies have played an increasingly important role in this development because they combine the advantages of a small design, reduced production costs, fast measurement speeds, high precision, reliability, and non-contact measurements across large distances.

    The NSA affair has once again catapulted the subjects of data security and, more specifically, data exchange into the focus of the media and the public. How do you prevent data from being intercepted by a third party? The solution to this problem lies in cryptography: The message must be encoded. However, this measure also carries some risks. What if the key exchange is intercepted? This is precisely where quantum cryptography comes into play.

    The fundamental idea behind so-called quantum key distribution (QKD) is to use single photons instead of entire photon bundles. This way an eavesdropper (referred to as “Eve” in quantum mechanics) cannot simply divert the photons that are sent from Person A to Person B (referred to as “Alice” and “Bob,” respectively, in quantum mechanics). Eve would have to copy and then detect the photons to prevent the interception from being detected by Bob. This is precisely what quantum mechanics renders impossible (the so-called “no cloning theorem”).

    Quantum Cryptography 

    Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks. The best known example of quantum cryptography is a quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem.

    ''Leading the way to a Quantum-Safe World'', Quantum Xchange is the first company in the world to effectively implement point-to-multi-point key distribution, including Quantum Key Distribution, across any distance. Our key distribution systems give enterprises the best defense to keep assets safe, preparing them for the threat today, tomorrow, and in the future.

    It’s no secret, the advantages of quantum computing are tremendous. In fact, some lawmakers agree and the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously approved The National Quantum Initiative Act in September of this year. In a piece by John Prisco, CEO of Quantum Xchange stated the benefits if quantum science becomes a priority.

    Schematics of the quantum key.
    As the private sector works hard to close the gap, the government’s inaction creates a barrier to advancements that may let other countries take the lead in quantum advancements. For the U.S., the nation benefits if we lead the quantum computer race which could shape the future of our economy, our military and our national influence in the world.

    While the current administration has been reluctant to fully fund research, the private sector steps up. Google and IBM lead the private sector race to develop quantum computers. Prisco goes on to explain there are defenses and security measures that protect data from hackers called Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), an instant measurement of photons upon reception of the key to see if the information was intercepted. Europe financial institutions use QKD, however, it is not yet common in the US.

    Learn how quantum communication conformed can provide security that is guaranteed by the laws of nature. Quantum Xchange's Phio QK TM is the first and only commercially-available Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) solution available in the United States. Phio QK leverages the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics using photons of light, not electronic bits to physically transfer a shared secret between two entities.
    ''Quantum Xchange’s Phio is the dynamic, crypto-agile and ultra-secure solution you need to future-proof your communication channels.''
    This solves the fundamental problem with modern-day encryption: the ability for keys to be intercepted, corrupted, or exposed during transmission. Once a quantum key is generated and shared, it can be used to encrypt data, which can then be sent over a fiber cable, the Internet or other networks using Phio TX.

    The Future of Computing

    In today’s computing landscapes, we mainly have classical computers that process bits of information existing in binary. As technology evolves, we are beginning to see tech giants and even nation-states working to create super computers known as quantum computers. Quantum computers differ from the current classical model through their ability to analyze data existing in more than one state at a time.

    Quantum computers use quantum bits, also known as qubits, enabling them to solve complex problems exponentially quicker than classical computers. Due to their highly efficient processing capabilities, quantum computers will be powerful enough to render public key cryptographic algorithms useless. Although quantum computers are not yet widespread, it will only be a matter of years before organizations everywhere will be relying on quantum computing.

    The Solution to Counteract the Threat of Quantum Computers

    With the rise of quantum computing on the horizon, society faces a threat that will break public key cryptography as we know it. Futurex has developed a quantum-safe hybrid certificate authority solution, delivered as a turnkey, HSM-integrated appliance or cloud service. With this technology, you can simultaneously issue certificates to IoT devices or any other digital object with both classical and quantum-safe algorithms. After integrating Futurex’s KMES Series 3 with quantum-safe functionality into your cryptographic ecosystem, as soon as your organization is ready, you can make the post-quantum shift without issuing new certificates.

    A Hybrid Certificate Authority Solution

    Why create a hybrid solution instead of a new quantum-safe solution? Futurex wants to simplify the process for its customers. With a hybrid certificate authority solution that combines current cryptographic standards with quantum-safe technology powered by ISARA Corporation, customers won’t need to issue any new certificates. Instead, the certificates can be converted to use quantum-safe algorithms, so when quantum computing becomes widespread and risks impacting public key algorithms like RSA, ECC, and Diffie-Hellman, you’ll be ready.

    Time Frame

    Industry experts predict that quantum computers will be widespread in the next five to ten years. However, prototypes of quantum computer have already been developed. This indicates it will only be a few years before we see significant strides in the industry. That is why it is better to be prepared ahead of time, before the inevitable threat strikes, especially for long-lifespan devices such as satellites and automobiles.

    Partnering with ISARA Corporation

    In order to implement this quantum-safe solution, Futurex is partnering with ISARA Corporation. ISARA is a security solutions provider that specializes in quantum-safe technology. They focus on helping organizations migrate from standard cryptographic systems to ones equipped to handle attacks from quantum computers. Together with ISARA’s expertise in quantum-safe cryptography, Futurex has developed a post-quantum hybrid certificate authority solution that will utilize both classical and quantum algorithms to take IoT manufacturers into the next generation of security.

    Cryptographic Processing and Key Management

    All cryptographic operations performed as part of Futurex’s quantum-safe hybrid certificate authority solution take place within the secure, FIPS 140-2 Level 3 validated boundary of the Key Management Enterprise Server (KMES) Series 3. Quantum-safe functionality is offered as a license upgrade to the device and can be enabled for hardware already deployed in the field.

    How to Implement Your Quantum-Safe Solution

    The implementation process for the post-quantum hybrid certificate authority solution is straightforward. Because this solution combines both standard cryptographic measures as well as the new quantum-safe method, hybrid certificates can be issued the same way as always, using X.509 format certificates. This is beneficial to your organization because the existing processes remain the same and migration to a new system is not necessary.

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